SOME USEFUL PREFIXES & AFFIXES

 

 

ante(before):

ante -room:an antechamber, typically serving as a waiting room.

antecedent: a thing or event that existed before or logically precedes another

antechamber:a small room leading to a main one.

antedate:precede in time; come before (something) in date  

antebellum:occurring or existing before a particular war, esp. the American Civil War

anti(against):

antibiotic:relating to, involving, or denoting antibiotics

anticlimax:a disappointing end to an exciting or impressive series of events 

Antarctic:of or relating to the south polar region or Antarctica.

anti_aircraft:(esp. of a gun or missile) used to attack enemy aircraft.

antivirus: of software) designed to detect and destroy computer viruses.

contra(against):

contradiction:the statement of a position opposite to one already made

contrast:the state of being strikingly different from something else

contraceptive:of or relating to contraception

contrabands:trade in smuggled goods

contra-suggestible:tending to respond to a suggestion by believing or doing the contrary

inter(between):

intersection:a point or line common to lines or surfaces that intersect

interact:act in such a way as to have an effect on another; act reciprocally

interfere:handle or adjust (something) without permission

interchange:put each of (two things) in the other’s place

interstate:existing or carried on between states

intro(within):

intravenous:existing or taking place within, or administered into, a vein or veins

introduction:the bringing of a product, measure, concept, etc.

intromission:the action or process of inserting the penis into the vagina in sexual intercourse

 introduce:occur at the start of; open

introject:the unconscious adoption of the ideas or attitudes of others

post(after):

postwar:occurring or existing after a war

postal:of or relating to the post office or the mail

postnatal:of, relating to, characteristic of, or denoting the period after childbirth

postmodern: a late 20th-century style and concept in the arts, architecture, and criticism that represents a departure from modernism and has at its heart a general distrust of grand theories and ideologies as well as a problematical relationship with any notion

sub(under):

subsoil:the soil lying immediately under the surface soil

submarine:a warship with a streamlined hull designed to operate completely submerged in the sea for long periods, equipped with an internal store of air and a periscope and typically armed with torpedoes and/or missiles

sub-tropic:the regions adjacent to or bordering on the tropics

sumacid:(of a fruit) moderately sharp to the taste

subalpine:of or situated on the higher slopes of mountains just below the treeline

super(above):

superacid:a solution of a strong acid in a very acidic (usually nonaqueous) solvent, functioning as a powerful protonating agent

supercalender:give a highly glazed finish to (paper) by calendering it more than normally calendered paper

supersede:take the place of (a person or thing previously in authority or use); supplant

superbly:in an excellent way

supercharger:a device that increases the pressure of the fuel-air mixture in an internal combustion engine, used in order to achieve greater efficiency

trans(across):

trans-fat:another term for trans-fatty acid

transection:cut across or make a transverse section in.

transcoding:convert (language or information) from one form of coded representation to another

transcriber:put (thoughts, speech, or data) into written or printed for    

a-(on,it,at)

 

aside:to one side; out of the way

accompany:go somewhere with (someone) as a companion or esco

adverb:a word or phrase that modifies or qualifies an adjective, verb, or other adverb or a word-group, expressing a relation of place, time, circumstance, manner, cause, degree,

attend:be present at (an event, meeting, or function) 

associate:connect (someone or something) with something else in one’s mind

a-,ab-(away from)

absent: not present in a place or at an occasion

absolute:not qualified or diminished in any way; total

absolve:set or declare (someone) free from blame, guilt, or responsibility

absentminded:(of a person or a person’s behavior or manner) having or showing a habitually forgetful or inattentive disposition

abstain:restrain oneself from doing or enjoying something

ad-(to)

adjust:alter or move (something) slightly in order to achieve the desired fit, appearance, or result

adjourn:break off (a meeting, legal case, or game) with the intention of resuming it later

adjoin:be next to and joined with (a building, room, or piece of land

adjudge:consider or declare to be true or the case

adjunct:a thing added to something else as a supplementary rather than an essential part

ambi-(both)

ambisonic:denoting or relating to a high-fidelity audio system that reproduces the directional and acoustic properties of recorded sound using two or more channels.

ambiguity:uncertainty or inexactness of meaning in languaga

ambisexual:bisexual or androgynous.

ambivert:a person whose personality has a balance of extrovert and introvert features.

ambivalence:having mixed feelings or contradictory ideas about something or someone

astro-,aster-(star)

astrobiology:the science concerned with life in space.

astrobleme:an eroded remnant of a large crater made by the impact of a meteorite or comet

astrochemistry:the study of the chemical substances and species occurring in stars and interstellar space.

astrocompass:an instrument designed to indicate direction with respect to the stars

astrocyte:a star-shaped glial cell of the central nervous system.

be-(cause to be)

because:for the reason that; since 

bechance:befall.happen

becloud:cause to become obscure or muddled:

become:begin to be

belittle:make (someone or something) seem unimportant

bene-(good)

benevolent:well meaning and kindly

benefit:an advantage or profit gained from something

benefactor:a person who gives money or other help to a person or cause

benefactress:a woman benefactor

by(aside from,secondary)

by-blow:a side-blow not at the main target.

 a man’s illegitimate child.

by-catch:the unwanted fish and other marine creatures caught during commercial fishing for a different species.

by-form:a secondary form of a word

by-law:a rule made by a company or society to control the actions of its members.

by-product:entailment, corollary; ramification, repercussion, spinoff, fallout; fruits.

circum-(around)

circumambulate:walk all the way around (something) 

circumcise:cut off the foreskin of (a young boy or man, esp. a baby) as a religious rite, esp. in Judaism and Islam, or as a medical treatment

circumflex:bending around something else; curved :

circumfuse:pour (a liquid) so as to cause it to surround something 

circumlunar:moving or situated around the moon

con-,cor,(with,together)

convenient:fitting in well with a person’s needs, activities, and plans 

combine:unite; merge 

confirm:establish the truth or correctness 

confluent:flowing together or merging

compress:flatten by pressure; squeeze; press 

de-(opposite of)

dealcholise:remove amount of alcohol

deemphasis:flatten by pressure; squeeze; press 

reenergize:disconnect (an electric circuit) from a power supply

deescalate:reduce the intensity of (a conflict or potentially violent situation).

demode:out of fashion.

de-(down,out)

depart:leave, typically in order to start a journey 

deplete:use up the supply of; exhaust the abundance of 

desacralize:remove the religious or sacred status or significance from

decrease:become smaller or less in size, amount, intensity, or degree

descent:move or fall downward

dec-(ten)

deciliter:a metric unit of capacity, equal to one tenth of a liter.

decameter:a metric unit of length, equal to 10 meters.

decimal:relating to or denoting a system of numbers and arithmetic based on the number ten, tenth parts, and powers of ten

decadal: a period of ten years 

decade:a period of ten years

dia-(through)

diachronic:concerned with the way in which something, esp. language, has developed and evolved through time

diabolic:belonging to or so evil as to recall the Devil

dialectic:the art of investigating or discussing the truth of opinions.

diagnosis:the identification of the nature of an illness or other problem by examination of the symptoms

dialogue:conversation between two or more people as a feature of a book, play, or movie

dis-(opposite  of)

disability: a physical or mental condition that limits a person’s movements, senses, or activities 

disobey:fail to obey (rules, a command, or someone in authority)

disoblige:offend (someone) by not acting in accordance with their wishes

disorder:a state of confusion

disabuse:persuade (someone) that an idea or belief is mistaken

en-,em-(to make)

enable:give (someone or something) the authority or means to do something

enact:1 (often be enacted) make (a bill or other proposal) law

embody:be an expression of or give a tangible or visible form to (an idea, quality, or feeling)

emasculate:make (a person, idea, or piece of legislation) weaker or less effective

encage:confine in or as in a cage.

e-,ex-(out of)

extinct:(of a species, family, or other larger group) having no living members 

exchange:an act of giving one thing and receiving another

excavator:a person who removes earth carefully and systematically from an archaeological site in order to find buried remains.

exceed:be greater in number or size than (a quantity, number, or other measurable thing

excavate:make (a hole or channel) by digging

fore-(before)

forearm:the part of a person’s arm extending from the elbow to the wrist or the fingertips.

forebear:an ancestor.

forebode:(of a situation or occurrence) act as a warning of (something bad)

forebrain:the anterior part of the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus. 

foreknow:be aware of (an event) before it happens 

extra-(beyond)

extra-virgin:denoting a particularly fine grade of olive oil made from the first pressing of the olives and containing a maximum of one percent oleic acid

extracurricular:(of an activity at a school or college) pursued in addition to the normal course of study 

extremity:the furthest point or limit of something 

extramural:outside the walls or boundaries of a town, college, or institution

extrados:the upper or outer curve of an arch

hetero-(different)

heteroaromatic:denoting an organic compound with a ring structure that is both heterocyclic and aromatic

heterodox:not conforming with accepted or orthodox standards or beliefs 

heterogeneous:diverse in character or content 

heterogamy: marriage between people from different sociological or educational backgrounds. 

heterotroph:an organism deriving its nutritional requirements from complex organic substances

mono-(one)

monocracy:a system of government by only one person

monotony:lack of variety and interest; tedious repetition and routine 

monotonous:dull, tedious, and repetitious; lacking in variety and interest

monogamy:the practice or state of being married to one person at a time.

monolayer:a layer one molecule thick.

poly-(many)

polyatomic:consisting of many atoms.

polygamy:the practice or custom of having more than one wife or husband at the same time

polymorphous:the occurrence of something in several different forms, in particular

polyphase:consisting of or occurring in a number of separate stages

polypill:a pill containing a number of medicines that all treat the same condition.

sym-,syn-(together)

symbiont: either of two organisms that live in symbiosis with one another.

symmetrical:made up of exactly similar parts facing each other or around an axis; showing symmetry

sympathize:feel or express sympathy

symphony:an elaborate musical composition for full orchestra, typically in four movements, at least one of which is traditionally in sonata form

syllabus: an outline of the subjects in a course of study or teaching 

multi-(many)

multitasking:the simultaneous execution of more than one program or task by a single computer processor

multicolor:having many colors.

multicultural:of, relating to, or constituting several cultural or ethnic groups within a society 

multiethnic:of, relating to, or constituting several ethnic group

multiply:obtain from (a number) another that contains the first number a specified number of times

peri-(around)

periphrasis:the use of indirect and circumlocutory speech or writing.

pericope:an extract from a text, esp. a passage from the Bible

periwig: a highly styled wig worn formerly as a fashionable headdress by both women and men.

peripheral:of, relating to, or situated on the edge or periphery of something

perigynous:(of a plant or flower) having the stamens and other floral parts at the same level as the carpels.

semi-(half)

semidarkness:a light level in which it is possible to see, but not clearly.

semiannual:occurring twice a year; half-yearly

semibold:printed in a typeface with thick strokes but not as thick as bold

semiclassical: of music) having elements both of classical music and of other more popular genres.

semicircle:a half of a circle or of its circumference.

tri-(three)

trialogue:a dialogue between three people

triangular:shaped like a triangle; having three sides and three corners 

triathlon:an athletic contest consisting of three different events, typically swimming, cycling, and long-distance running.

triplet:a group of three associated lines close together in a spectrum or electrophoretic gel.

triple:consisting of or involving three parts, things, or people

ultra-(beyond)

ultraconservative:extremely conservative in politics or in the observance of religion

ultrafiltration:filtration using a medium fine enough to retain colloidal particles, viruses, or large molecules

ultramarine:a brilliant deep blue pigment originally obtained from lapis lazuli.

ultrasonic:of or involving sound waves with a frequency above the upper limit of human hearing

uni-(one)

unique:being the only one of its kind; unlike anything else

unibody:a single molded unit forming both the bodywork and chassis of a vehicle

unibrow:a pair of eyebrows that meet above the nose, giving the appearance of a single the fact of being or consisting of one, or of being united as a.

unicity:he fact of being or consisting of one, or of being united as a whole

unicolor:of one color.

co-(together)

co-belligerent: any of two or more nations engaged in war as allies.

coworker:a fellow worker

colleague:a person with whom one works, esp. in a profession or business

co-occur:occur together or simultaneously

co-brand:designate (a product or service) with the brands of joint manufacturers or sponsors

in-,im-,il,ir(in,into,on)

inject:drive or force (a liquid, esp. a drug or vaccine) into a person or animal’s body with a syringe or similar device

inscribe:write or carve (words or symbols) on something, esp. as a formal or permanent record

impoverish:make (a person or area) poor

include:comprise or contain as part of a whole

involve:(of a situation or event) include (something) as a necessary part or result

il-,im-,ir-(not)

illegible:not clear enough to be read

illiterate:unable to read or write

irreponsible:(of a person, attitude, or action) not showing a proper sense of responsibility

illogical:lacking sense or clear, sound reasoning

illegibly:in an unclear way

micro-(small)

microanalysis: the quantitative analysis of chemical compounds using a sample of a few milligrams.

microbe:a microorganism, esp. a bacterium causing disease or fermentation.

microbiology:the branch of science that deals with microorganisms.

microarray:a grid of DNA segments of known sequence that is used to test and map DNA fragments, antibodies, or proteins.

microbalance:a balance for weighing masses of a fraction of a gram.

pre-(before)

prepay:pay for in advance 

preheat:heat (something, esp. an oven or grill) 

prehospital:beforehandrelating to procedures administered or care provided prior to a patient’s arrival at a hospital

prehensile:(chiefly of an animal’s limb or tail) capable of grasping

prejudice: preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience 

re-(again)

reconcile:restore friendly relations between 

reconcite:(of a subject or knowledge) little known; abstruse

recalculate:calculate again, typically using different data

remember:have in or be able to bring to one’s mind an awareness of (someone or something that one has seen, known, or experienced in the past)

remedy:a medicine or treatment for a disease or injury

a-,an-(without)

abnormal:deviating from what is normal or usual, typically in a way that is undesirable or worrying

anarchy:a state of disorder due to absence or nonrecognition of authority 

anemia:a condition marked by a deficiency of red blood cells or of hemoglobin in the blood, resulting in pallor and weariness.

anonymous:(of a person) not identified by name; of unknown name

apathy:lack of interest, enthusiasm, or concern

bi-(two)

bilingual:(of a person) speaking two languages fluently 

biannual:occurring twice a year

bilabial:(of a speech sound) formed by closure or near closure of the lips, as in p, b, m, w

bilateral:having or relating to two sides; affecting both sides

mis-(wrong)

misunderstand:fail to interpret or understand (something) correctly

mistype: make a mistake in typing (a word or letter

misjudge:form a wrong opinion or conclusion about

misappropriate:(of a person) dishonestly or unfairly take (something, esp. money, belonging to another) for one’s own use

misapply:use (something) for the wrong purpose or in the wrong way

hyper-(high)

hyperactive:abnormally or extremely active

hyperemia:an excess of blood in the vessels supplying an organ or other part of the body.

hypergamy:the action of marrying a person of a superior caste or class.

hyperbolic:of or relating to a hyperbola

hypersonic:relating to speeds of more than five times the speed of sound

homo-(same)

homocentric:having the same center.

homogamy:marriage between people from similar sociological or educational backgrounds

homogenous:Biology old-fashioned term for homologous 

homogenize:subject (milk) to a process in which the fat droplets are emulsified and the cream does not separate

homophonous:(of a word or words) having the same pronunciation as another or others but different meaning, origin, or spelling.

hypo-(under)

hypocrisy:the practice of claiming to have moral standards or beliefs to which one’s own behavior does not conform; pretense.

hypostyle:(of a building) having a roof supported by pillars, typically in several rows

hypothesize:put (something) forward as a hypothesis

hypotermal:Geology of or relating to mineral deposits formed at relatively high temperature and pressure

hypotaxis:the subordination of one clause to another.

il-,im-,in-,ir-(not)

impolite:not having or showing good manners; rude

impolitic:failing to possess or display prudence; unwise 

inaction:lack of action where some is expected or appropriate

inviolate:free or safe from injury or violation 

innocent:not guilty of a crime or offense

mal-(bad)

malfunction:(of a piece of equipment or machinery) fail to function normally or satisfactorily

malefic:causing or capable of causing harm or destruction, esp. by supernatural means

malcontent:a person who is dissatisfied and rebellious.

malaria:an intermittent and remittent fever caused by a protozoan parasite that invades the red blood cells.

maladroit:ineffective or bungling; clumsy

mini-(small)

minuet:a slow, stately ballroom dance for two in triple time, popular esp. in the 18th century

minimal: a minimum amount, quantity, or degree; negligible

minibus: a small bus for about ten to fifteen passengers.

minicab:a car that is used as a taxi but that must be ordered in advance because it is not licensed to pick up passengers who hail it in the street.

minimall:a mini market

non-(without)

nonsense:spoken or written words that have no meaning or make no sense

nonword:a group of letters or speech sounds that looks or sounds like a word but is not accepted as such by native speakers.

nonprofit:not making or conducted primarily to make a profit

nonpast:a tense not expressing a past action or state.

nonwhite:denoting or relating to a person whose origin is not predominantly European.

ob-(in the way of)

obligato:variant spelling of obbligato 

obedient:complying or willing to comply with orders or requests; submissive to another’s wil

obstruct: block (an opening, path, road, etc.); be or get in the way of 

obstacle:a thing that blocks one’s way or prevents or hinders progress 

obviate:remove (a need or difficulty) 

out-(beyond,more than)

outburst:a sudden release of strong emotion

outlaw:a person who has broken the law, esp. one who remains at large or is a fugitive.

outpace:go faster than

outplay:play better than

omni-(all)

omnifarious:comprising or relating to all sorts or varieties.

omnibus:a volume containing several novels or other items previously published separately

omnirange:a navigation system in which short-range omnidirectional VHF transmitters serve as radio beacons.

omnisexual:involving, related to, or characterized by a diverse sexual propensity.

over-(too much)

overall:total 

 

overachieve:do better than is expected, esp. in academic work

overact:(of an actor) act a role in an exaggerated manner 

overarm:adjective & adverb done with the arm moving above the level of the shoulder.

overage:an excess or surplus, esp. the amount by which a sum of money is greater than a previous estimate.

per-(trough)

persecute:subject (someone) to hostility and ill-treatment, esp. because of their race or political or religious beliefs

permit:give authorization or consent to (someone) to do something

perspire:give out sweat through the pores of the skin as the result of heat, physical exertion, or stress 

persuade:cause (someone) to do something through reasoning or argument

pertinent:relevant or applicable to a particular matter; apposite

                                                           SUFFİXES (NOUN FORMİNG SUFFİXES)

 

-ee

trustee:an individual person or member of a board given control or powers of administration of property in trust with a legal obligation to administer it solely for the purposes specified

nominee:1 a person who is proposed or formally entered as a candidate for an office or as the recipient of a grant or award

referee: an official who watches a game or match closely to ensure that the rules are adhered to and (in some sports) to arbitrate on matters arising from the play

trainee:a person undergoing training for a particular job or profession.

-ar,er,or,eer,-ist

arranger:put (things) in a neat, attractive, or required order

senator:a member of a senate

aviator:pilot

florist:a person who sells and arranges plants and cut flowers.

Egyptian:sb. from Egypt

-ess,-ine(feminine form)

benefactress:a female benefactor.

heroine:a woman admired or idealized for her courage, outstanding achievements, or noble qualities

empress: the wife or widow of an emperor

-age

teenage:denoting a person between 13 and 19 years old

wreckage:the remains of something that has been badly damaged or destroyed

leakage:the accidental admission or escape of a fluid or gas through a hole or crack

marriage:the formal union of a man and a woman, typically recognized by law, by which they become husband and wife

-al

structural: of, relating to, or forming part of the structure of a building or other item

territorial:of or relating to the ownership of an area of land or sea unambiguously explicit and direct unambiguously explicit and direct

categorical:unambiguously explicit and direct

approval:the action of officially agreeing to something or accepting something as satisfactory

-ence,ance

concurrence:be of the same opinion; agree

interference:the action of interfering or the process of being interfered with

penance:voluntary self-punishment inflicted as an outward expression of repentance for having done wrong

tenancy:possession of land or property as a tenant

patience:the capacity to accept or tolerate delay, trouble, or suffering without getting angry or upset

-ary

questinnary:a set of printed or written questions with a choice of answers, devised for the purposes of a survey or statistical study

binary:relating to, composed of, or involving two things

secretary:an official of a society or other organization who conducts its correspondence and keeps its records

functionary:a person who has to perform official functions or duties; an official

compulsory:required by law or a rule; obligatory

-cy

delinquency:minor crime, esp. that committed by young people

illiteracy:incompetence or knowledge in a specified area

secrecy:the action of keeping something secret or the state of being kept secret

efficiency:the state or quality of being efficient

privacy:the state or condition of being free from being observed or disturbed by other people

-hood

neighborhood:a district, esp. one forming a community within a town or city

childhood:the state of being a child

girlhood:the state or time of being a girl

motherhood:a woman in relation to a child or childre

n to whom she has given birth

sisterhood:the relationship between sisters

-om

boredom: state of feeling bored

kingdom:a country, state, or territory ruled by a king or queen

freedom:the power or right to act, speak, or think as one wants without hindrance or restraint

sheikdom:a leader in a Muslim community or organization

-ion,-sion,-tion

collection:the action or process of collecting someone or something 

diversion:an instance of turning something aside from its course

version:a particular form of something differing in certain respects from an earlier form or other forms of the same type of thing

arbitration:the use of an arbitrator to settle a dispute

aviation:the flying or operating of aircraft

-ism

communism:a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.

Hinduism:a major religious and cultural tradition of the Indian subcontinent, developed from Vedic religion

surrealism:a 20th-century avant-garde movement in art and literature that sought to release the creative potential of the unconscious mind, for example by the irrational juxtaposition of images

fascism:a 20th-century avant-garde movement in art and literature that sought to release the creative potential of the unconscious mind, for example by the irrational juxtaposition of images.

-ity

mortality:the state of being subject to death

quality:the standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind; the degree of excellence of something

quantity:the amount or number of a material or immaterial thing not usually estimated by spatial measurement

capability:noun ( pl. -ties) (often capability of doing (or to do) something)

power or ability

cavity: an empty space within a solid object, in particular the human body 

-ment

arrangement:the action, process, or result of arranging or being arranged

judgement:the ability to make considered decisions or come to sensible conclusions

commitment:the act of committing or the state of being committed.

requirement:need for a particular purpose; depend on for success or survival

-ness

kindness:the quality of being friendly, generous, and considerate.

sadness:feeling or showing sorrow; unhappy

seriousness:solemn or thoughtful in character or manner

unkindness: inconsiderate and harsh to others 

usefulness:able to be used for a practical purpose or in several ways : a

-ty

utility:the state of being useful, profitable, or beneficial

ability:the capacity to do something

capacity:the maximum amount that something can contain

capability:noun ( pl. -ties) (often capability of doing (or to do) something)

power or abilit

-ure

texture:the feel, appearance, or consistency of a surface or a substance

mixture:a substance made by mixing other substances together

culture:the arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded

-able,-al,:

achievable:reach or attain (a desired objective, level, or result) by effort, skill, or courag

remarkable:worthy of attention; striking

impossible:not able to occur, exist, or be done

irresistible:too attractive and tempting to be resisted

postnatal:of, relating to, characteristic of, or denoting the period after childbirth

-ous

hazardous:risky; dangerous 

disastrous:causing great damage

courageous:not deterred by danger or pain; brave

numerous:great in number; many

ambitious:having or showing a strong desire and determination to succeed

-less

stainless:unmarked by or resistant to stains or discoloration.

-ly

friendly:kind and pleasant

lovely:exquisitely beautiful

elderly:(of a person) old or aging

-some

awesome:extremely impressive or daunting; inspiring great admiration, apprehension, or fear

cumbersome:large or heavy and therefore difficult to carry or use; unwieldy

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